Interested in training for your team? Click here to learn more

IRC Section 461(l) Business Loss Limitations: Preparing Form 461, Limitation on Business Losses

Recording of a 110-minute CPE webinar with Q&A

This program is included with the Strafford CPE Pass. Click for more information.
This program is included with the Strafford CPE+ Pass. Click for more information.
This program is included with the Strafford All-Access Pass. Click for more information.

Conducted on Tuesday, May 10, 2022

Recorded event now available

or call 1-800-926-7926

This course will explain how to calculate losses under new Section 461(l) and report these losses on Form 461. The panel will discuss what is and is not trade or business income, capital gains and losses to include in the calculation, calculating loss carryforwards, and completing Form 461 with needed clarifications.


According to the IRS, though Form 461 doesn't exist for 2020, it will be issued beginning 2021.

Once gone, but now back, Form 461 per IRC Section 461(l) disallows excess business losses for noncorporate taxpayers. Excess business losses are those above $250,000 ($500,000 for joint taxpayers) after combining all income and losses from all trades or businesses for a taxpayer. This limitation is in addition to and after the passive loss and at-risk limitations already imposed on business losses.

Losses from flow-through entities combine with Schedule C and other individual income and losses on the individual shareholder's or partner's return. Net operating loss carryforward deductions are limited to 80 percent of taxable income or the carryover amount, whichever is less.

The form itself is only 16 lines, and the instructions are just two pages. Fourteen of the amounts on the 16 lines come directly from the 1040 or are simple calculations from preceding lines. On line 10, however, you enter income not attributable to a trade or business, and on line 11, you enter deductions not attributable to a trade or business. Understanding what to include on these two lines is key to calculating the allowed loss.

Adding to the complexity of this calculation is that explicitly following the instructions for inputting capital losses on Form 461 will, in some cases, generate a different result than intended under Section 461(l).

Listen as our panel of experts explains the amounts included on Form 461, the intentions of Section 461(l), carrying over business losses, and handling the related ambiguities.



  1. Section 461(l)
  2. Calculating excess business losses
  3. Defining trade or business under 461(l)
  4. Capital gains and losses under 461(l)
  5. Carryforward calculations
  6. Completing Form 461
  7. Questions surrounding 461(l)
  8. Impending legislation


The panel will review these and other essential matters:

  • How is excess business income calculated?
  • What constitutes a trade or business under Section 461(l)?
  • Which capital gains and losses are included on Form 461?
  • What is reported on Lines 10 and 11 on Form 461?


Carter, Jason
Jason Carter

Assistant Practice Director
True Partners Consulting

Mr. Carter is the Assistant Practice Director for True Partners Consulting in the Chicago office. He has over 16 years...  |  Read More

Mark Johnson, CPA
Mark Johnson, CPA
True Partners Consulting

Mr. Johnson is Manager at the Chicago office of True Partners Consulting and an Illinois CPA with seven years of...  |  Read More

Access Anytime, Anywhere

CPE credit is not available on downloads.

CPE On-Demand

See NASBA details.